Questions to Ask About Which Assistive Technology Is Right for You
Contributed by Steve Kelley, CVRT
How Do I Determine Which Computer Is Right for Me?
One consumer recently said to me, "I’m afraid if I don’t learn how to use this thing (an iPad), I’m just going to be left in the dust…" The consequences of not learning to use adaptive technology may not be quite so dire, but as he also pointed out later in the conversation, "It sure would be nice to do a little reading again, and have a way to look up information without having to depend on my wife all the time."
Trying to determine if there is technology that may help you or a family member read, communicate with email, or just have some fun playing an electronic game, can be overwhelming…and what a pleasant surprise this is! You may be dizzy with all the choices today, but overall, it is much easier to find a computer or tablet that best suits your needs as opposed to what was available several years ago—choosing only from the one or two products that had accessibility and making do with that.
"I Stopped Using the Computer Because I Can't Read What Is On the Screen"
More often, however, I hear, “I stopped using the computer because I couldn’t read the screen anymore.” Consumers rarely know that there is a technology world full of screen readers and screen magnifiers on devices as common as the Kindle HD, iPad, or the latest Mac or Windows computer.
How do you figure out what’s right for you?
No vision or low vision? At its most basic, we can divide access technology out there into two broad categories: screen readers or screen magnifiers. Today, you are going to find both almost everywhere: Mac and Windows computers; iPads and iPhones; Android tablets and smart phones.
What Is A Screen Reader?
A screen reader is software that reads what’s on the screen. Users rely on keyboard shortcuts and/or gestures, instead of the mouse, to navigate the computer. With a screen reader, you can read and compose email, surf the Web, read a book, write the novel you’ve always dreamed of! In most cases you will use the same software on the computer a sighted user may choose, but accessing it with a screen reader.
What Is a Screen Magnifier?
A screen magnifier is software that makes the images and text on the screen, larger and easier to read. Most magnifiers offer the option to magnify just a portion of the screen or the entire screen. Some screen magnifiers will allow users to invert colors, change the color scheme entirely, and even read portions of the screen. The greater the screen magnification, the less one sees of the screen. This means more left to right scrolling, and less overall efficiency.
If you are a low vision user who requires a great deal of magnification to read you may want to have a professional assessment from your local Vision Rehabilitation Therapist or Assistive Technology Specialist because at a certain magnification you may become very frustrated with trying to use the computer screen visually and a screen reader is the better choice for you.
Determining What Is Right for You
This is sometimes a difficult realization for computer users who have spent years using the computer visually. A professional can be honest with you and help you make that transition. That said, many low vision technology users will choose to use a screen magnifier with some voice features, or use a screen reader when needed or convenient.
What Should I Get?
Consider the following questions to get you started:
1. What type of computer did you use in the past, if any? A Windows PC, Mac, or something else?
Consider that there may be less of a learning curve choosing technology you already have some familiarity with. Sure the iPad may be sexier these days, but if you are already familiar with Windows, you may get up and running more quickly using a Windows PC with a screen reader or magnifier.
2. Are you a touch typist, someone who knows the keyboard layout and can type without looking a great deal?
If you are a touch typist, add a keyboard to your device, even if it is a smartphone or tablet. Wireless keyboards will connect to most devices and you will find this will increase your efficiency. All programs have keyboard shortcuts you can learn instead of using the mouse or finger gestures.
If you are not a touch typist and rely on your sight to see the keys, consider large print keyboards and keyboard stickers. These products will make the keys easier to find. However, if you plan to do a great deal of typing, you may want to brush up on your touch typing skills at your local Adult Ed, or by using a software program like Talking Typer available from the American Printing House for the Blind or TypeAbility.
3. Do you want to return to the workplace, and what type of work are you looking for?
This is an important question to ask, because you find that the profession you are seeking employment in uses a specific type of computer. For example, you may discover if you are looking for work in the field of graphic design, you may wish to begin your training with a Mac. Likewise, you may find in the Northeast, that the JAWS screen reader with Windows is the “standard” in employment settings, whereas in the Midwest, it is more likely to be Window Eyes.
If you are trying to decide on technology for the workplace, do a little research first and find out what employers are using, and/or contact your local vocational rehabilitation counselor who may be able to answer these questions.
4. How much are you able to spend?
The inclusion of accessibility features in many mainstream devices like the Kindle Fire HD or Android Tablets with the latest version of the Android operating system, called KitKat, means that consumers can purchase a tablet with a screen reader and screen magnifier for under $200 new! These may work for some people to provide access to email.
As alternatives to reading print, and information online from websites, these devices may not be the best tools for your needs. For example, you may find that the latest version of Windows with a screen magnifier such as ZoomText, and a 21 inch monitor provides much greater access to the tasks you wish to do, and this would cost closer to $1000 for computer and software.
5. Do you need portability?
It is hard to beat the portability of a small tablet or smart phone, but you often compromise many features—larger, more visible screen, full size keyboard, speed, etc. This too is becoming less of an issue with lighter and more powerful laptops and wireless keyboards that make the difference between portable and desktop much less of an issue.
Links to Common Screen Readers and Magnifiers
By now you should be getting a clearer idea of what technology may be useful for you. Here are some links to some of the more common screen readers and magnifiers that are available. This is not an inclusive list, just something to introduce you to what is available.
Windows Screen Magnifiers
Both Windows 7 and 8 offer a screen magnifier built into the operating system that may be found in "Ease of Access" under the accessibility area of your computer.
Windows Screen Readers
Both Windows 7 and 8 offer a basic screen reader Narrator that may be suitable for beginners or to get the computer set up.
JAWS, Window Eyes and SuperNova are full-featured commercial screen readers. In addition, NVDA is an open source screen reader that is free to download with a large and loyal following of users. System Access is another screen reader with an enthusiastic following that may be used at no cost while connected to the Internet using Internet Explorer Web browser. Try the free version of System Access or you can download a copy of System Access from Serotek.
Dolphin also sells Dolphin Guide software that combines both magnification and screen reading into an easy-to-use interface. Guide is a great alternative for users with specific goals such as email or listening to Internet radio and limited computer skills.
Apple Macintosh Computer Screen Magnifier and Readers
Apple provides both a screen magnifier (Zoom) and screen reader (Voice Over) within the operating system. Both are turned on by going into System Preferences and selecting Universal Access, or in the most recent operating system, Mavericks you will find both are found in Accessibility which is in the System Preferences menu.
ZoomText also makes a screen magnifier for the Macintosh.
Android Screen Magnifier and Screen Reader
Both Android tablets and smartphones come with Talkback as a built-in screen reader. The most recent version of the Android operating system, KitKat also has Magnification Gestures (screen magnifier). Both features may be turned on by opening Settings and selecting Accessibility.
Apple iOS Screen Magnifier and Screen Reader
The Apple operating system used in the iPad, iPhone and iPod is called iOS. If you learn it for one device, you’ll know how to use all of them.
All of these devices have a built-in screen reader called VoiceOver and a screen magnifier called Zoom. To find these features open Settings, then select General, then find the Accessibility button. For more information on Apple iOS accessibility, go their Apple's website. Also, you can find out lots of good information on AppleVis, a community-powered website for blind and low-vision users of Apple's range of Mac computers, the iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch and the Apple TV.
Regardless of what you ultimately choose you will learn skills that may be transferred to newer devices when they come out or for another similar devices. While the keystrokes for an Apple’s VoiceOver screen reader may be different than those used with NVDA on the PC, you will learn that both read documents and web pages in similar ways. Dust off that computer or start shopping for a new one, because you can learn to use the computer with limited vision, or none at all!
- Father James Warnke: Living a Well-Integrated Life
Father Warnke, who was born with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and glaucoma, has had a very successful series of careers as mental health counselor and Episcopal priest, to name just a few of his accomplishments.